The basic principles of energy efficient design are to achieve the right balance between – maximizing heat gain in winter, minimizing heat gain in summer, and minimising heat loss in winter.
To achieve this result it is necessary to consider:
–  The size of the home necessary to accommodate the number of people who ae going to live in it.
–  The orientation of the block to gain the best passive solar advantage,
–  The type of building materials to be used,
–  The use of mass for thermal storage,
–  The best possible insulation to minimise heat loss in winter and heat gain in summer,
–  The overall location and size of windows and/or external glass doors,
–  The location of windows and/or glass sliding doors on the north side of the home to get ben from the sun in winter,
–  Shading all north facing glass in summer,
–  Minimising east and west facing glass, and where necessary ensuring that it is full shaded externally during summer,
–  Reducing south facing windows to cut back on excessive heat loss in winter, 
–  The use of double glazing or low-e glass for south facing windows,
–  Locating opening windows and/or sliding doors to allow cross ventilation to provide cooling effects in summer,
–  The efficiency of heating and cooling provisions,
–  The efficiency of HWS and other appliances, and
–  Efficient lighting provision.

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